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Despite its name, the monument has nothing to do with the famous Egyptian Queen, Cleopatra. The obelisk was actually made many centuries before her birth, in approximately 1450 BC, and the surrounding monument created in the 19th century (nearly two millennia after Cleopatra's death).
The obelisk was constructed in ancient Egypt from red granite/ It weighs around 180 tons, and is about 21 meters (68 feet) high.
The obelisk was given to Britain by Mehemet Ali, the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt to commemorate the Battle of the Nile and Battle of Alexandria (both of which occurred in 1801). The obelisk was actually given to Britain in 1819, but only transported to England in 1877 to 1878.
At the bottom of the obelisk are two bronze sphinxes (not actually Egyptian, but added in Victoria times). These were supposed to be installed facing away from obelisk, so as to guard it, but were actually installed backwards, and look at the obelisk rather than guarding it. The entire monument (obelisk and sphinxes) is set on a granite base.
One interesting fact, is that the monument suffered some damage after being constructed in London. If you look carefully at the installation, you can also see some unrepaired shrapnel damage to one of the sphinxes, which was the result of a German air raid during World War 1.
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